IoT interview questions are now not just restricted to electrical and electronic students. The technology is becoming synonymous with the domain of computer science.
Internet of things (IoT) is an idea from computer science: connecting ordinary things like lights and doors to a computer network to make them “intelligent”. An embedded system or a computer connects each thing in a network to the internet.
Some technologies used for the internet of things are RFID and meshnets. The connections allow each thing to collect and exchange data, and we can control them remotely or by setting rules or chains of actions.
IoT improves the ease of life of humans and their daily activities. Experts estimate that the IoT will consist of almost 50 billion objects by 2020. Source: Wikipedia
1. What are the main components of IoT technology?
An Internet of Things (IoT) system consists of three parts:
- IoT Sensors.
- Network connectivity.
- Data storage applications.
2. What are the security concerns related to IoT?
This is one of the most frequently asked IoT interview questions. Data security and privacy are major concerns related to IoT. These devices are vulnerable to hacking and cloud endpoints could be used by hackers to attack servers. Software developers and device designers have to ensure adequate security and privacy measures.
3. Explain the IoT protocol stack.
IoT has 4 protocol layers:
- Sensing and information: Includes various smart sensor devices based on GPS, RFID, Wi-Fi, etc.
- Network connectivity: The layer is based on wired and wireless networks such as WLAN, WMAN, Ethernet, optical fiber, and more.
- Information processing layer: This layer has special features such as information storage, analytics, and processing the data for
allowing vendors to deliver various kinds of services.
- Application layer: The application layer defines all applications that use the IoT technology or in which IoT has deployed.
4. Explain the basic architecture of the IoT network.
IoT has three main parts namely sensors, network connectivity, and data storage applications. Sensors either communicate directly with the central server for data storage or communicate via gateway devices. A gateway can handle various wireless interfaces and that’s why one gateway can handle multiple technologies and multiple sensors.
The typical wireless technologies used widely are Zigbee, Zwave, RFID, NFC, etc. The gateway interfaces with the cloud using wireless or wired technologies such as Wi-Fi, mobile, fiber, or DSL.
The IoT hardware system can be constructed using Micro-Controller Units. The choice of micro-controller depends on the system-on-chip resources, the power required, and the interfaces needed based on different sensors and memory requirements.
To finalize the IoT hardware architecture, the following aspects are required:
- Type of sensors/actuators.
- A communication interface type.
- Amount of data to be captured and transmitted.
- A frequency of data transportation.
IoT software architecture is based on open source components like Arduino and Linux (Raspberry Pi).
5. Explain Bluetooth Low Energy protocol associated with IoT?
Nokia originally introduced this protocol as wibree in 2006. Also known as Bluetooth-smart, this protocol presents the same range coverage with a good deal of decreased strength intake because of the unique Bluetooth.
It has comparable bandwidth with narrow spacing utilized by ZigBee. Low electricity latency and decreased complexity make the Bluetooth low energy protocol appropriate to include in low-cost microcontrollers.
6. What are the top 5 Machine-to-Machine (M2M) applications in the world?
The five most popular machine-to-machine (M2M) applications are:
- Asset tracking and monitoring in some form or the other. Stolen automobiles, fleet, construction system, and others are some examples.
- Insurance telematics is huge as it gives insurance groups the possibility to cut threat levels and force higher/extra appealing pricing.
- Utilities/automatic meter reading/clever grids: There is plenty of regulation and funding into this in the intervening time.
- Automotive is also big and is driven by consumer’s demand.
- mHealth is also present on a small scale.
7. How will IPv6 affect the development and implementation of the Internet of Things (IoT)?
IoT interview questions consist of IPv6 based queries especially as the world gradually moves from IPv4 to IPv6. A barrier to the improvement of IoT is the technical boundaries of the version of the network protocol (IP) that is the most widely used today: IPv4.
IP is the set of rules that computers use to ship and receive statistics via the internet; it includes a specific address that every connected device or item should have to speak. Model four (ipv4) dominates the internet today. It can accommodate about four billion addresses.
Version 6 (ipv6) allows for a big increase in the variety of IP addresses. With ipv4, the maximum number of particular addresses (4.2 billion) is not sufficient to provide even one device to all 7.3 billion human beings on earth.
Ipv6, in an evaluation, will accommodate approximately 3.4 x 10^38 addresses. And that implies multiple IoT technology devices for access to every person on the earth.
8. What is the difference between a wireless sensor network (WSN) and the Internet of Things (IoT) network?
WSN: Wi-Fi sensor network is the foundation of IoT packages. WSN is a network of motes, fashioned to look at, to take a look at, or to monitor bodily parameters of desired utility. For example, motes deployed in agricultural land screen temperature, humidity, or soil moisture to gather statistics. The analysis of statistics helps determine crop yields in terms of quality and amount.
IoT: IoT is a community of bodily objects managed and monitored over the internet. In its application, you will stumble upon the monitoring of physical parameters.
But preferred results are a little different. IoT is about M2M and it’s far greater than bringing smartness into daily gadgets. For example, a device hooked in your thermostat monitors the surrounding temperature and adjusts the thermostat accordingly.
9. What is meant by a smart city with respect to the Internet of Things?
As with IoT and other popular era terms, there is no established consensus definition or set of standards for characterizing what a smart metropolis is.
Precise characterizations vary widely; however, they involve the use of IoT and related technologies to improve energy, transportation, governance, and other municipal offerings. Some typical features of smart cities are:
- Preserving and developing open spaces.
- Creating walkable localities.
- Promoting a variety of transport options.
- Making governance citizen-friendly and cost-effective.
- Giving an identity to the city.
- Applying Smart Solutions to infrastructure and services in area-based development in order to make them better.
The source for the features of smart cities is http://smartcities.gov.in/content/innerpage/smart-city-features.php
10. What is Bluegiga APX4 protocol in IoT?
Bluegiga and wireless together may be used without interference. The Bluegiga apx4 supports both Bluetooth and Wi-Fi and is based on a 450mhz arm9 processor.
Have you worked with any IoT device or technology? Are you aware of other important IoT interview questions and answers? Do comment.